Articles Posted in Estate Planning and Documents

What is elder financial exploitation?

The Florida Department of Elder Affairs defines elder financial exploitation as “the illegal or improper use of another individual’s resources for personal profit or gain.”  This exploitation takes on many forms involving deception and/or coercion, including the improper use of a power of attorney.

What is a Power of Attorney (“POA”)?

IRREVOCABLE SPENDTHRIFT TRUSTS

Trusts are popular estate planning instruments that may bring many benefits both during lifetime and in the case of death. Some common reasons for setting up a trust include the avoidance of costs and time consumption of probate proceedings, property management for those who cannot or do not wish to manage the property themselves, continuance of property management after death or during disability, and saving of taxes and protection of the assets against the claims of creditors. However, there are several types of trusts and not all of them provide these benefits to the same extent.

The revocable trust is the most flexible one as the creator (settlor) can at modify the terms of the trust or completely revoke it at any time. See Fla. Stat. § 736.0602. However, the assets transferred into such trust are still considered personal assets of the settlor and accordingly, can be reached by his or her creditors. See Fla. Stat. § 736.0505(1)(a). Therefore, the revocable trust is not an ideal solution for asset protection purposes. Upon death of the settlor, this trust becomes irrevocable, meaning that the rules for asset distribution can no longer be changed. It is also possible to make a trust irrevocable from the outset and to afford protection against creditors by adding a spendthrift provision. See Fla. Stat. § 736.0502.

HOW THE NEW TAX BILL MAY AFFECT DIVORCES

In one of our previous posts we informed about the new Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (“TCJA”) and the major changes it brings, including the various adjustments in tax deductions. This article focuses on deductions applicable to alimony, as the new system may significantly affect and expedite divorce settlements in the months to come.

Alimony is a form of spousal support awarded by agreement or by court decision to the lower-income spouse after divorce, typically referred to as the “dependent” spouse. The courts have wide discretion in establishing the amount of alimony and the time period during which the higher-income spouse is obligated to pay. The purpose of alimony is to help the dependent spouse overcome the divorce and to at least partially maintain the standard of living the spouses shared during their marriage. To ease the burden of splitting one household into two, the alimonies were tax deductible – at least until now.

Guardianship:  When No Less Restrictive Alternative is Available

What is guardianship?

The simple answer: court intervention to safeguard the property and care of an individual unable to make such decisions themselves.

IRREVOCABLE SPENDTHRIFT TRUSTS

Trusts are popular estate planning instruments that may bring many benefits both during lifetime and in the case of death. Some common reasons for setting up a trust include the avoidance of costs and time consumption of probate proceedings, property management for those who cannot or do not wish to manage the property themselves, continuance of property management after death or during disability, and saving of taxes and protection of the assets against the claims of creditors. However, there are several types of trusts and not all of them provide these benefits to the same extent.

The revocable trust is the most flexible one as the creator (settlor) can at modify the terms of the trust or completely revoke it at any time. See Fla. Stat. § 736.0602. However, the assets transferred into such trust are still considered personal assets of the settlor and accordingly, can be reached by his or her creditors. See Fla. Stat. § 736.0505(1)(a). Therefore, the revocable trust is not an ideal solution for asset protection purposes. Upon death of the settlor, this trust becomes irrevocable, meaning that the rules for asset distribution can no longer be changed. It is also possible to make a trust irrevocable from the outset and to afford protection against creditors by adding a spendthrift provision. See Fla. Stat. § 736.0502.

How to comply with formal requirements of Will execution

Florida law places great emphasis on compliance with its statutes regarding execution of wills. This is to assure the authenticity of such an important document profoundly affecting many lives, and prevent fraud and imposition in its execution. The statutory provisions, which appear in Florida Statute §735.502, set out four main requirements for executing a will. Failure to comply with the formal requirements can invalidate the will and force the estate to pass through intestate succession. It is therefore important to comply with and understand these formal requirements.

Firstly, the will must be in writing. This means that the document can be handwritten, typed, or printed. Florida does not recognize oral wills (nuncupative wills) or wills without witnesses (holographic wills). Nuncupative wills are allowed in only few jurisdictions and typically require witnesses and some exigent circumstances such as a car accident or a heart attack. Contrarily, many states recognize holographic wills and have different requirements as to their validity.

When devises are actually not part of the estate

Many unexpected things can happen in the period between the execution of a will and the actual death. For example, a decedent may devise the family house in Key West to her granddaughter. Several years after executing the will, the decedent gets into financial troubles and sells the Key West house. With other matters on her mind, the decedent never gets to adjust the will and passes away. Does the granddaughter still have a right to the house? Does she get money instead? Does she get any value at all?

The legal term describing a situation when a particular asset devised in the will is not part of the estate is ademption by extinction. The Florida statutes cover ademption in Section 732.606 for specific devises, and Section 732.605 for securities. Ademption is not uncommon; the decedent may have owned the asset and later sold it, or could have never owned it all. The situation would be different if the grandmother gave the granddaughter the Key West house as a gift before passing away. In that case, the granddaughter’s devise would have been satisfied during the grandmother’s lifetime. Accordingly, this legal concept is called ademption by satisfaction and is not discussed in this blog post.

Legal Capacity and Estate Planning- How to Help Safeguard a Will from Future Litigation

When a loved one grows older, their caretakers’ ever growing to-do list can be overwhelming. After dealing with the basic, everyday needs of an aging family member, it may sometimes be easy to overlook the fact that your loved one does not have a valid will. By not addressing this issue, the task of handling final affairs and estate distribution after their death becomes increasingly more difficult. If you are responsible for someone who is at risk for developing Alzheimer’s, dementia, or any other disease that can affect their mental capacity, it is important that you consult with an estate planning lawyer who can ensure that a proper will is drafted in accordance with the laws of the state of Florida.

Florida courts have held that a will can be properly admitted to probate if the testator was competent at the time the will was executed.  Jervis v. Tucker, 82 So.3d 126 (FL 4th DCA 2002).  A testator will be found to have been competent if they possessed the ability to “mentally understand in a general way the nature and extent of the property to be disposed of, and the testator’s relation to those who would naturally claim a substantial benefit from the will, as well as a general understanding of the practical effect of the will as executed.” American Red Cross v. Estate of Haynsworth, 708 So.2d 602, 605 (FL 3rd DCA 1998). Florida courts will apply these standards and also evaluate the facts specific to a particular case in order to determine if a testator was of “sound mind” when they created the will. Estate planning lawyers play an important role in this process and have the responsibility of ensuring that the testator is legally competent at the time the will is created.

Where There’s a Will, There May Not Always Be a Way for Attorney-Client Privilege

Attorney-client privilege may not always apply in probate litigation. In fact, the Third District Court of Appeal has held that under the Florida Evidence Code, a lawyer may not invoke attorney-client privilege under certain circumstances.

Attorney-client privilege is a key hallmark of the attorney-client relationship. The privilege prevents disclosure of confidential communications pertaining to legal advice between a client and her attorney. Attorney-client privilege therefore promotes candor and better representation. Rule 4-1.6(a) of the Florida Rules of Professional Conduct states that “[a] lawyer must not reveal information relating to representation of a client . . . unless the client gives informed consent.” https://www.floridabar.org/rules/rrtfb/rule/?num=4-1.6. Further, under the official comments to Rule 4-1.6, a lawyer has an ethical obligation to assert attorney-client privilege on a client’s behalf, including during proceedings involving evidentiary matters.

Do incapacitated wards need prior court approval to marry? Subsequent ratification is enough

Already in 1888, the United States Supreme Court first recognized the right to marry as one of the fundamental rights of all individuals.  Describing marriage as “the most important relationship in life,” the Court went on upholding that marriage is “the foundation of the family and society, without which there would be neither civilization nor progress.”  Maynard v. Hill, 125 U.S. 190 (1888).

Regretfully, when it comes to marriage of incapacitated persons, they are sometimes the victims of emotional abuse, neglect, and financial exploitation.  For this reason, a guardianship court may remove an incapacitated person’s right to marry if there is clear and convincing evidence that he or she is incapacitated with respect to that right.  Fla. Stat. 744.3215(2)(a); 744.331(6).  However, even when a guardianship court does not remove the right to marry, an incapacitated person’s right to marry becomes “subject to court approval” when his or her right to contract has been removed.  Fla. Stat. 744.3215(2)(a).  This legal framework aims at protecting the ward by allowing a court to assess the risks of abuse and exploitation, while upholding the ward’s fundamental right to marry, to the greatest extent possible.