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Can an Irrevocable Trust be Changed? Trust Decanting under Florida Law

You do not have to be a Sommelier to be familiar with the concept of decanting wine. “Decanting”- the pouring of wine from its original bottle into a different vessel- is a technique utilized for two contemporaneous purposes; two separate the wine from any sediment that has formed it its original container, and to aerate the wine to enrich its flavors. It may be surprising, however, to learn that a similar legal concept exists for trusts, and is valuable for similar circumstances. As its name suggests, “trust decanting” is when a trustee creates a new trust, moving all the assets from the initial trust into the second trust, to either correct a mistake or unintended result- the hypothetical “sediment” that the initial trust may have incurred, or to strengthen the original purpose of the trust.

Under Florida law, the power to decant a trust is granted to any trustee other than the settlor or beneficiary who has the power to invade the trust principal; called an “authorized trustee.”[1] Following a 2018 revision to Florida’s trust decanting statute, there are now three distinct ways in which a trustee may decant;[2]

Florida’s Elective Share: Part II

Our previous blog post two weeks ago addressed Florida law regarding the protection to surviving spouses provided by the elective share from the perspective of estate planning (Elective Share – what is it and why you should know more about it). This post focusses on the options of a surviving spouse after declaring elective share. However, electing against the decedent’s estate may not always be the most beneficial option for a surviving spouse. Depending on the circumstances, a surviving spouse’s pretermitted share of decedent’s estate can be much larger than their elective share, and therefore, in some cases, it may not be beneficial to utilize the elective share.

Intestacy and Pretermitted Spouse

How does Florida’s Elective Share Affect my Estate Plan? Part One.

What is an “Elective Share”?

In situations where the decedent’s will has left their surviving spouse very little, or nothing, Florida law protects surviving spouse’s in two major ways: The Elective Share and Homestead. While both of these laws may affect your estate plan in significant ways, this blog and the next blog will focus on the elective share. A surviving spouse has the right to claim an elective share of the decedent’s estate, often termed “electing against the will.” By opting to claim their elective share, a surviving spouse can essentially supersede the terms of a will and bequests to other people in order to obtain a percentage of the decedent’s estate.

Should I disclaim my Inheritance? When It’s Right to Say No

Florida law allows a beneficiary to “disclaim” any interest in or power over property that has been left to them. A disclaimer is a legal tool to refuse the acceptance of an interest in or a power over a property, governed by a series of statutes called the Florida Uniform Disclaimer of Property Interests Act, and by relevant federal tax law.

Why Disclaim?

Biden’s Tax Proposal and the “Step-Up in Basis”: What it Means for Your Estate Plan or Trust

A commonly utilized tax law in estate planning considerations, known as the “step up in basis,” may be in jeopardy. The “step-up,” derived from section 1014 of the Internal Revenue Code, gets applied to the cost basis of property when it is transferred upon death of the transferor. This mechanism has been a beneficial way to minimize the capital gains tax of one’s heirs, especially for property that has greatly appreciated over time. For example, if someone buys a home for $100,000 dollars, and fifty years later the owner sells the home at a time when the home has appreciated in value to $1,000,000, there would be a capital gain of $900,000, to which a long-term capital gains tax rate of 20.00% is applied. However, if the owner dies owning the home, and the home is transferred upon the homeowner’s death at a time when the home has appreciated in value to $100,000, the step up in basis converts the original cost basis to the fair market value of the transferred property at the time of the homeowner’s death. Thus, if the persons inheriting the property were to immediately sell it for $1,000,000, there would be zero capital gain, because the basis is equivalent to the sale price. The step-up in basis has allowed for taxpayers to save tremendous amounts of money on capital gains tax. Note that, although it is often referred to as a “step-up” in basis, it could be a “step-down” if the value of the property a the time of death is less than what the owner purchased it for.

However, the Biden Administration has proposed to eliminate the step-up in basis. In short, this means that heirs will have to pay capital gains tax on inherited assets based upon the cost basis of the donor’s purchase price. According to Biden’s proposed tax plan, there would still be an exemption for capital gains on the first $1,000,000 of capital gains ($2,000,000 for married couples), but gains above the $1,000,000 ($2,000,000 for married couples) will not receive step-up in basis treatment.

Guardianship: Don’t Believe Everything You Watch on Netflix

Netflix’s new sensationalist movie “I Care a Lot,” released this past February 19, 2021, might have you thinking that being a guardian may be the path to wealth and easy money. Although a scammer making a living by successfully requesting the courts to appoint her as the guardian of elderly people she falsely claims cannot take care of themselves makes for a captivating story, fortunately this is far from the reality of guardianship practice.

Guardians are appointed by the court to care for and manage the property of people who cannot do it for themselves, such as individuals with a chronic mental illness, dementia, traumatic brain injury, or orphaned children. But the first thing to keep in mind is that, before a guardian is appointed, the allegedly incapacitated person has to be declared incapacitated by a court of law. This process involves the evaluation by one or more mental health professionals and/or physicians. Thus, unlike the movie, simply alleging a person cannot care for him or herself will not be sufficient. Once the person is deemed incapacitated, some or all of his or her legal rights are removed, and the guardian is charged with the responsibility to exercise those rights on behalf of the incapacitated person, who is legally referred to as “the ward.”

Bernie’s “For the 99.5% Act”: Is It Time to Start Thinking about Tax Planning?

For the year 2021, each individual has $11,700,000.00 of estate tax credit (or $23,400,000.00 for married couples), otherwise known as the “applicable exclusion amount.” For estates that exceed the applicable exclusion amount, the tax rate is up to 40.00% of the amount in excess of the applicable exclusion amount. The current estate tax credit is scheduled to maintain that level, indexed for inflation, until December 31, 2025, at which point the applicable exclusion amount will be reduced to approximately $6,000,000.00 ($12,000,000.00 for married couples).  However, since the Biden administration proposed major estate tax reform, there has been much discussion about whether the estate tax credit will be reduced earlier.

On March 25, 2021, Senator Bernie Sanders introduced the “For the 99.5% Act,” which proposed, among others, the following tax reforms:

Larry King’s Handwritten Will Ordeal

The recent passing of the broadcasting legend, Larry King, has resulted in his family not only mourning him but also fighting amongst themselves over his true last wishes. Larry, together with his wife, Shawn Southwick King, had executed estate planning documents in 2015, where he named her the personal representative of his estate. However, the couple faced some difficulties and Larry filed for divorce in August 2019. Just two months later, he executed a new handwritten will, leaving his entire estate valued at $2 million dollars to his five children. Two witnesses also signed their names to the hand-written will.

Larry’s eldest son, Larry King Jr., submitted the 2019 will to the court and has petitioned to be appointed the temporary administrator of Larry’s estate. However, Shawn has filed an objection to the 2019 will, claiming that the will is invalid and that Larry King Jr. exerted undue influence over his father towards the end of his life, and insisting that the 2015 will is the valid one.

2021 Biden Administration Proposed Tax Changes: Will My Estate Be Subject to Estate Tax?

Over the course of the last several decades, the federal estate tax credit has increased to the point that only very high net-worth individuals and families need to concern themselves with estate tax planning. For the year 2021, the “applicable exclusion amount” is $11,700,000.00 per individual (23,400,000.00 for married couples). The gift tax exclusion amount is the same, that is, each individual may give $11,700,000.00 during their lifetime without incurring any gift tax. If the sum of lifetime gifts and assets transferred at death is greater than the applicable exclusion amount, then such transfers will be taxed at a rate as high as 40%.

However, the Biden administration has proposed a reduction of the applicable exclusion amount to $3,500,000.00 per person for estates, $1,000,000.00 for lifetime gifts, and increase the tax rate to up to 45%. Such a change is made more likely by the fact that, in January, the Democratic party has consolidated power in both branches of the U.S. Congress. Last year, there was even fear that, if such a change came in to effect at any time during 2021, congress could make the change retroactive to January 1, 2020, prompting many families to make gifts before the end of the year to ensure their use of the current applicable exclusion amounts.

I Made an Irrevocable Trust a Long Time Ago: Can I Change it Now?

People make irrevocable trusts for many reasons, one major reason being tax planning. In order to make a completed gift for tax reasons, a donor has to part with control over the gifted asset, and making a gift to a trust that is irrevocable is one of the ways this can be accomplished. But that if your circumstances change, or tax laws change, and you would like to modify or terminate an irrevocable trust? Can a trust still be modified if it is irrevocable?

The answer is yes, if certain conditions are met. Florida statutes specifically allow for modification of irrevocable trusts in certain circumstances. For instance, by court order (Fla. Stat. § 736.0410), to modify tax provisions (Fla. Stat. § 736.04114), or where the trustee and all beneficiaries unanimously agree (Fla. Stat. § 736.0412), just to name a few. But there are certain situations where none of the Florida statutes apply. For instance, a modification under Fla. Stat. § 736.0412 by agreement of trustees and beneficiaries can only be accomplished if the settlor has passed away and only with respect to a trust that was made irrevocable after January 1, 2001. That leaves some situations that are not covered by the Florida statute.

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